Metro Manila Part 4
According to the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board, public ridership in Metro Manila composes of the following: 46% of the people go around by jeepneys, 32% by private vehicle, 14% by bus, and 8% use the railway system. Transportation development in Metro Manila follows the Metro Manila Dream Plan, which consists of building short-term to long-term infrastructure lasting up to 2030 and addressing its issues on traffic, land use and environment.
Roads and highways
The roads of Metro Manila is built around the City of Manila. Roads are classified as local, national or subdivision roads. There are ten radial roads branching out from the city. Also there are five circumferential roads forming a series of concentric semi-circular arcs around Manila. The circumferential and radial roads are systems of interconnected roads, bridges and highways. A problem with the circumferential roads are the missing road links. These are the roads that are not yet constructed to give way for development due to Metro Manila's rapid urbanization. The metropolis is resolving this problem through the completion of missing road links or through the construction of connector roads.
An important circumferential road is the Circumferential Road 4, the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue or more popularly known as EDSA. It traverses the cities of Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City and Caloocan. Line 3 follows the alignment of EDSA, from Taft Avenue in Pasay up to TriNoma, terminating before it reaches Caloocan. Circumferential Road 5 serves the people near the regional limits of Metro Manila and also serves as an alternate route for Circumferential Road 4.
Prominent radial road include the Radial Road 1, composed of Roxas Boulevard and the Manila-Cavite Expressway (Coastal Road) that connects Metro Manila to Cavite, Radial Road 3 or the South Luzon Expressway that connects Metro Manila to Laguna, Radial Road 6, composed of Aurora Boulevard and Marcos Highway that runs up to Rizal and Radial Road 8 or the North Luzon Expressway that serves as the gateway to the north.
The radial and circumferential road system are being supplanted by a new numbered highway system implemented by the Department of Public Works and Highways, and new signage are being placed with its implementation. Expressways are being assigned numbers with the E prefix. National roads are assigned 1 to 3 digit numbers, except for those classified as tertiary national roads.
The development of roads, highways and expressways are based on the Metro Manila Dream Plan. Ongoing projects in the dream plan include the rehabilitation of EDSA, Skyway Stage 3 and the construction of the missing road links for the circumferential roads (e.g. Taft Avenue Flyover, Metro Manila Interchange Project Phase IV).
Metro Manila has three rapid transit lines. The Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRTA) operates the Line 1 (Green Line) and the Line 2 (Blue Line). On the other hand, the Manila Metro Rail Transit System operates the Line 3 (Yellow Line) which traverses EDSA. The Philippine National Railways operates a commuter rail service in Metro Manila called the PNR Metro South Commuter. Its main terminal, Tutuban, is located in Tondo. The most troublesome metro line is Line 3 which has been plagued with frequent and severe disruptions. Line 1 has an average weekday ridership of 560,000, while Line 2 has an average weekday ridership of 200,000. While in Line 3 serves roughly 650,000 on an average weekday. In February 2014, a total of 14.06 million passengers took Line 1 while 6.13 million took Line 2.
The North–South Commuter Railway's first phase is under construction, while the other two phases are already approved. When completed in 2023, it will connect Central Luzon and Calabarzon to Metro Manila by rail. It will also supersede the current PNR Metro Commuter Line.To improve rail transport within the region, several railway projects are being undertaken by the national government:
- Line 9 (Metro Manila Subway) began construction in 2019. When completed, it will be the third heavy rail line in the country after Line 2 and Line 7. Partial operations are to begin by 2022, and full operations is slated for 2025.
- Line 7 (Red Line) is under construction. When completed, it will connect Metro Manila to the province of Bulacan.
- A Common Station, connecting Line 1, Line 3, Line 7, and Line 9 is planned, although bureaucracy in the Department of Transportation, corporate feud and issues related to its proposed location are hindrances of its construction.
- Line 1 will be extended up to Bacoor in the province of Cavite. Construction started in 2019.
- Line 2 will be extended to Rizal with the East Extension project and to the Port of Manila with the West Extension Project. The East Extension Project is on-going while the proposed West Extension Project is in the planning stage.
- Line 3 will be undergoing rehabilitation after years of poor maintenance from the previous administration.
AirNinoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) is the only airport and the premier gateway in Metro Manila. It is the busiest airport in the Philippines. NAIA has four terminals: Terminal 1, Terminal 2 (which is exclusively used by the Philippine Airlines), Terminal 3 (the newest and largest airport terminal in NAIA) and Terminal 4 (also known as the Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal). The other airport that serves Metro Manila is the Clark International Airport in Angeles which is located 80 kilometers (50 mi) away.
Bus franchises in the region are regulated by the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board. The Premium Point-to-Point Bus Service is the express bus system that runs from its dispatch terminal in Fairview up to the central business districts along EDSA. It aims to cut travel time substantially and provide a faster, safer and more convenient bus service to commuters, who are usually caught at the heavy traffic across the metropolis. A second express bus link from SM North EDSA, Trinoma and SM Megamall to Makati opened in December 2015, and by January 2016 was the line on which, for the first time in nearly three decades, a double-decker bus traveled on EDSA, to the delight of motorists, followed by a third link, this time from Robinsons Galleria to the Ayala Center complex in February 2016 and a fourth in March linking the Ayala Center to the Alabang Town Center in Muntinlupa via the Metro Manila Skyway (and later to Ayala Malls South Park). As of the present express buses also link the Market Market mall and Circuit Makati to both the Nuvali residential township and the Pacita Village complex in San Pedro, both in Laguna, in services launched in 2014 and 2017, respectively (plus additional services to the UP Town Mall in Quezon City and SM Masinag in Antipolo, Rizal), while intercity express buses have been in operation since 2015 to alleviate traffic on EDSA. In 2018, additional services from the Makati CBD and from San Lorenzo Place up to Cavite debuted.
Metro Manila will have its bus rapid transit system operational by 2018. The 27.7 kilometers (17.2 mi) proposed BRT system will traverse Commonwealth Avenue up to the Manila City Hall. The planned BRT system costs ₱4.9 billion ($109.5 million) and will have a fleet of 300 buses and 32 stations.
The Pasig River Ferry Service run by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority is the principal ferry shuttle system of Metro Manila. It traverses the Pasig River from Barangay Pinagbuhatan in Pasig to Plaza Mexico in Intramuros. Although it was referred to as a ferry, it is more akin to a water bus. It has 17 stations, but only 14 are operational. Another ferry route called the Manila-Bataan Ferry was launched on May 10, 2017 and traverses Manila Bay from the Bay Terminal at CCP Complex in Manila to Orion, Bataan. A new ferry route known as the Cavite-Manila Ferry Service that runs between Noveleta, Cavite and Intramuros was launched in January 2018.
Electricity and water
The Maynilad Water Services took over the west zone, which is composed of Manila (excluding the southeastern part of the city), Caloocan, Las Piñas, Malabon, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasay and Valenzuela. It also operates in some parts of Makati and Quezon City. Manila Water operates on the east zone, comprising the cities of Mandaluyong, Marikina, Pasig, Pateros, San Juan and Taguig. It also operates in large areas of Makati and Quezon City and the southeastern part of Manila, which was excluded from the west zone.Meralco is the sole electric distributor of Metro Manila.
It generates its power from the National Power Corporation and other independent power producers in Luzon. The Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) was responsible for the supply and delivery of potable water and the sewerage system in Metro Manila. It was privatized in 1997 and the region and its immediate surrounding areas was split into the east and west concession. The winning corporations provides the same function of MWSS.
For garbage hauling, the region spent ₱4.221 billion ($93.855 million) in 2013. Quezon City spent the most at ₱994.59 million ($22.115 million) while Pateros, the region's only municipality, spent the least amount of money on garbage at ₱9.478 million ($210,747)