The stories of ancient Philippine mythology include deities, creation stories, mythical creatures, and beliefs. Ancient Philippine mythology varies among the many indigenous tribes of the Philippines. Some groups during the pre-Spanish conquest era believed in a single Supreme Being who created the world and everything in it, while others chose to worship a multitude of tree and forest deities (diwatas). Diwatas came from the Sanskrit word devata which means “deity“, one of the several significant Hindu influences in the Pre-Hispanic religion of the ancient Filipinos. Below are some of the Philippine gods and goddesses of the ancient Visayans:
The Visayans are a Philippine ethnic group native to the Visayan islands, to the southernmost islands of Luzon and to the northern and eastern parts of Mindanao. They are speakers of one or more Visayan languages, the most widely spoken being Cebuano, distantly followed by Hiligaynon and Waray-Waray.
Ancient Visayan Deities Philippine Mythology
The list is divided into generations based on common beliefs about the offspring of the gods.
Kaptan (Captan) – The supreme god who dwells in the sky. He is the Ancient Visayan counterpart of Bathala. Of all the supreme deities in the Visayas, he is the most worshipped by the natives. He had a son named Lihangin.
Maguayan/Magwayan – The goddess of the sea and death. She had a daughter named Lidagat who died and after that, she ferried the souls of the dead to the underworld, Sulad.
SECOND GENERATION GODS:
Lihangin – The god of the wind and the son of Kaptan. He later married Lidagat and had four children.
Lidagat – The goddess of the sea, daughter of Maguayan. She later married Lihangin and had four children.
THIRD GENERATION GODS:
Likabutan – The god of the world and the eldest children of Lihangin and Lidagat.
Liadlaw – The god of the sun and the second children of Lihangin ang Lidagat.
Libulan – The god of the moon and the third children of Lihangin and Lidagat.
Lisuga – The goddess of the stars. She was the youngest children of Lihangin and Lidagat. The deity in which Silalak and Sibabay came from.
Other Visayan Deities in Philippine Mythology
The list includes the gods and goddesses who haven’t a unified pantheon within the Visayan deities mentioned above.
Adlaw – God of the Sun
Alunsina – She was the virgin goddess of the eastern skies.
Bangun Bangun – God of time and cosmic movements.
Barangaw – He is the god of the rainbow.
Bulalakaw – Bird god, causer of illness.
Burigadang Pada Sinaklang Bulawan – Goddess of greediness.
Dalikamata – The many-eyed goddess, cures eye illnesses.
Inaginid and Malandok – God invoked for success in battle and plunder.
Kan-Laon – The supreme god worshipped by the Ancient Visayans who lived in the Negros Island that dwells in Mount Kanlaon. As well as Kaptan, he is the Ancient Visayans counterpart of Bathala. He is the god of time
Kasaraysarayan sa Silgan – God of rivers.
Lalahon – She is the goddess of fire, volcanoes and harvest. In ancient times, Ancient Visayans blamed her for sending armies of locusts to destroy their harvests. In response, natives will offer her gifts in order to please her and prevent her from doing that.
Lubay-Lubyok Hanginun si Mahuyokhuyokan – Goddess of the night breeze.
Luyong Baybay – Goddess of the tides.
Magayon – Known as the goddess of all flying creatures
Magdang Diriinin – God of the lakes.
Maklium sa Tiwan – God of the valleys and plains.
Maklium sa Tubig – God of the sea.
Munsad Buralakaw – God of politics and affairs of men.
Nagined, Arapayan, and Makbarubak – God who could be appealed to when concocting poisonous oil.
Nagmalitong Yawa Sinagmaling – Diwata the goddess of lust, seduction and demons, the sister of Burigadang Pada Sinaklang Bulawan and the wife of Saragnayan
Pahulangkug – God of seasons.
Paiburong – God of the middle world.
Pandaki – God who rescues the deserving for a more pleasant fate.
Panlinugun – Ruler of the underworld, god of earthquakes.
Ribung Linti – God of lightning and thunder.
Santonilyo – God of graces.
Saraganka Bagyo – God of storms.
Saragnayan – God of darkness.
Sidapa – The god of death who is said to reside on top Mt. Madja-as.
Siginarugan – He is identified as the god of the underworld.
Suimuran and Suiguinarugan – Gods of hell, the final destination for all deceased souls.
Suklang Malayon – Goddess of homeliness, sister of Alunsina.
Sumalongson – God of the rivers and the sea.
Sumpoy – God of the afterlife.
Tungkung Langit – Upper world and supreme god, counterpart of Bathala.
Ynaguinid and Macanduc – Gods of war/battle and poisons